Posts Tagged 'BMW M'

The History of ///M: Part 2: 1986 – ’00

Part 1 is here.

     In 1989, the next generation M5 was released by using a modified E34 535i chassis, and used an evolution of the E28 6-cylinder.  Each M5 was hand built by either one technician or one team throughout the whole process (of appromixately 2 weeks), and rumor has it that the test drivers of the M5s could tell which team, or which technician built that M5 due to the quirks resulting from the hand-built nature.

     Six years after the release of the E30, in 1992, BMW decided to roll out a new M3 with the recent introduction of their improved E36 chassis in 1990.  M went with a more subdued exterior this time around, and this was the first M3 to receive a 6 pot engine in the form of the S50.  Unforunately, the new chassis also gained an extra 500 pounds due to sacrifices of raw performance for a broader appeal.  This was evidenced by the plethora of options available to the consumer and the fact that  BMW even released a sedan version of the M3 to bridge the gap between the end of the E34 M5 and the arrival of the E39 M5.  Even after a power bump to 320 horsepower and a few special editions, many E30 enthusiasts still felt like the E36 was “soft”.

     In 1995, BMW decided to take a jab at Ferrari and started a project to create their own “Ferrari killer” in the form of the M8.  Luckily, BMW realised there was no market for such a product, and dismantled the project before it was fully realized.  Some of M’s hard work did trickle down though, and the E31 8 series CSi receieved the only BMW production V-12.  Outputting 380 horses, the CSi was never labeled as an “M”, but the engine clearly had the badge.  Unfortunately, the 8 series never sold well, and that’s the last 8 series in production.

     Then in 1998, BMW introduced two M models in the same year.  They decided to do something new, and released an M version of BMW’s Z series roadsters. Two versions were released, one based on the roadster, and one on the coupe, which shared many of its parts due to the need to reduce production costs.  The whole project had a hard time getting green lit due to this, and their answer was to share as many parts as they could between the two models.  The other model was the third generation M5, based on the E39 chassis 5 series.  This M5 used a V-8 to power itself, and is probably the most loved M5 in history.  It was comfortable and luxurious, yet you could push the M5 damn hard on the track and have a fun time while doing so.  Part of its charm was the huge 4.9 liter V-8 that produced almost 400 horsepower which let you swing its large rear end with ease.

     And finally, with the arrival of the new millenium, we saw the introduction of the third generation M3, based on the E46 chassis 3 series.  Based only on a coupe and convertible this time, BMW wanted to keep this M3 as a pure sports car.  Though still beating with a 6 pot in its chest, BMW increased their new M3’s power to over 330 horses.  This gave the M3 over 100 horses per liter with the S54 engine, which also went on to win numerous awards.  This M3 model returned to its harder-core roots somewhat, as special editions included a CSL version (Coupe Sport Light) which shaved over 300 pounds and had its power increased by 30 horsepower and a GTR version which sported a 4 liter v-8 that had a limited run of only 10 due to its main purpose of endurance racing.  The third gen M3 definately had better success as a sports car (viewed as one of the best of all time) than the previous generation, which was partially due to its aurally breathtaking engine note.

     Everything past that point I’ll consider modern since the newer models have yet to stand the test of time.  In other words, I’m too lazy to keep on writing about them.

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The History of ///M, Part 1: 1972 to ’86

     Let’s take a quick detour from the E30 M3 and explore the history of the BMW M GmbH itself.  BMW M was created 14 years prior (1972) to the release of the E30 M3 to help facilitate BMW’s racing program.  They started out as an 8 man team, and their first project was the 3.0 CSL (based on the E9 chassis), the spiritual predecessor to the E30 M3.  It was the success of the CSL in the European Touring Car Championship that started BMW’s sports car image; with the help of M no doubt.

     Their next project was supposed to be developed solely by Lamborghini as a pure race car due to the financial problems BMW had at the time.  Ironically, Lamborghini also fell on some hard times and had to hand the project back over to BMW to finish.  The problem was that it wasn’t completed on time for the German racing championships due to the delays.  The next choice would be to enter the Procar Series, which required their racecars to be based on a production car.  It was beecause of this that the thinly veiled racecar was released to the public in 1978 under the M1 monikor with a small run of only ~450 cars.  So far, it’s the only M1 model ever created, and the only mid-engined BMW as well.

     A year later in 1979, BMW released an M version of the E12 5 series for everyday use under the M535i model.  It was basically a performance tuned version of the stock 535i, but basically for those enthusiasts who lusted for M1 power yet wanted everyday drivability.

     The next M model was released in 1983, and still wasn’t a fully badged BMW, but rather an M tuned 6 series.  Based on the E24 chassis, BMW M turned the 635i into the M635iCSi by using a modified version of the M88/3 engine they stuffed into the M1 six years prior.

     So what was next?  A racecar, a 5 series, and a 6 series were already “M”odified by M-Technik.  Unfortunately it wasn’t the M3, but rather another 5 series.  But not just “another” 5 series; this time it was badged as a “real” M car, under the first M5 monikor.  Based on the E28 chassis 535i, this M5 breathed through an evolution of the M88/3, dubbed the S30.  Pushing 286 horses, this wasn’t just any family four door, but it was the fastest performance saloon in the world at the time (1984).

     It was two years later that the E30 M3 was released to the public in 1986.  And thus the first M3 was born.  Designed from the ground up for the tracks, this road-going version was released only due to homologation purposes.  And we could tell.  It was a perfect mix of racecar and sports car, to the point where you could almost smell the burning tires seeping through the bulging wheel arches and feel the wind rushing through the massive front spoiler and over the rear wing.  It was hard.  It was mean.  It was ugly.  But it was beautiful.  Function over form with no compromises.  This was what the M3 was all about.  By the time 1988 came around, demand for the M models was high enough to persuade BMW to release an M version of every new generation 3 and 5 series.

Auto Spotlight: BMW M3 E30, Part 2: The History

Part 1 is here.

     ///M.

     The M badge is the symbol for the BMW subset now named BMW M GmbH (shortened from BMW Motorsport GmbH) that was created within the company in the 1970s to support their own racing efforts.  BMW M (also known as M-Technik) is the subsidiary of BMW that modifies and produces all the ///M versions of their parent company’s stock models for sale to both the public and to the motorsport world.  For their full history, click here (part 1) and here (part 2) for a full article on their history.

     As I’ve stated before, the E30 M3 was the first M3 ever, and may still be the most loved model even after more than two decades, three evolutions, and numerous technological advancements.  Just like how the M3 series is considered the “best” sports car in the world, the E30 model was, and still is considered to be the “best” out of all the M3 models (E30, E36, E46, E92).  Why?  Well let’s start off with the history lesson (you can skip this all of course.  The next post will be on the fun part: the engine and the specs).

     Three years after the launch of the E30 model (1982 -> 1985), the greenlight for an especially dynamic engine solely for the 3 series was given by the Chair of the Board of Management to BMW M (still BMW Motorsport GmbH at the time).  BMW M immediately began work on the power unit, deciding against a larger 6 pot and staying with a smaller 4 cylinder engine.  The obvious reasons were the weight savings and the increased headroom for higher piston speeds, and after only two weeks (fourteen days!) a prototype engine was built which we’ve come to know as the S14; named after the 14 (once again, only 14!) days it took to create the inline-4 engine.  So what did fourteen days give us?  An existing 2.0 liter 4 pot which was bored and stroked to just over 2.3 liters to match the displacement of their 6-cylinders.

     In addition to that, while spitting out around 195 ponies (5 lost due to the catalyst converter), the 4 cylinder could reach up to 143 mph while maintaining up to 30 miles per gallon.  Not bad.  But that wasn’t all.  M wanted to push the envelope even further by turbocharging it, but unfortunately, due to homologation purposes (the main purpose of development of the road-going M3) the M3 had to be kept atleast a little bit “civil” to sell the 5,000 required units.  (The homogolation rules required that a car that was entered into the European Touring Car Championship or World Touring Car Championship had to have sold atleast 5,000 models to the public within 12 months.  This rule was put in place to keep companies from building one-off race cars just for the ETCC.)

     But if “civil” was weighing about 1200 kilos (or around 2650 pounds) to give the car a 6.15 kg per hp ratio which would stand up to today’s sports car standards, then make some more “civil” cars!  Fortunately for BMW, keeping the engine naturally aspirated didn’t matter one bit (I believe it was better that the S14 was kept naturally aspirated) as the E30 M3 sold around 18,000 units over the course of its lifetime of 6 years (’86 to ’92).  So popular was the original model, that BMW decided to offer quite a few variants to the dedicated enthusiasts, starting with the Evo 1, continuing with the Evo 2, finally culminating with the Evo Sport, which sported around 235 horsepower and featured both an adjustable front spoiler and an adjustable rear wing.  By the end of the production cycle for the E30 M3, BMW had gained a new cult following and gained itself a new flagship sports car for years to come.  And the legacy it left behind?  How about the most winningest car model in history (true for the touring car circuit, but I’ll have to check up on that).  I think that pretty much says it all.  History has spoken.

     Next, I’ll detail both the engine and chassis in more detail, giving alot more numbers (yay) and specifics.  Stay tuned.

Auto Spotlight: BMW M3 E30, Part 1: The Prologue

     M.  The pride and poster boy (or girl if you’d like) of the BMW GmbH.  And according to them, it is also the most powerful letter in the world (catchy marketing).  It’s no coincidence then that the BMW M3 is one of the most renowned performance oriented models in the world.  Known for its racing heritage, BMW seems to have perfected the merging of a track car with one that can be driven from home to work without removing the German luxury expected from BMW.  Many enthusiasts view the BMW M3 series as the “best” sports car in the world; not the “fastest”, “coolest”, or “best bargain”, but just the “best” that every new performance car will eventually be compared against.

     The E30 M3 was the beginning of the the M3 legacy back in 1985 when it was first shown to the public.  It went on the sale the following year in 1986, making the M3 over 20 years old.  BMW is currently on their 4th M3 model (the E92 chassis), and yet the model that started it all is what I’m focusing on right now.  Not that the later generations are worse than the E30, but the E30 is the most “raw” than the rest due to less stringent emission/crash laws back then, and the fact that the only aim of the model was reach 5,000 sales due to homologation rules.  There were no expectations of a certain amount of comfort or performance, nor were there any sales expectations from the higher ups.  Unbound by expectations and rules, the E30 was as close and raw as you could get to a race car.  This is why it is loved by so many; that untamed  feeling and unbound limitations are felt in the engineering, unlike so many cars today.

     Here are a few pics courtesy of a Xbox 360 and a copy of Forza 3:

     and a few more artistic pics of the M3:


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© 2009 Rusi Li